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The Eye of the Heart:
A New Translation with Selected Letters
The Eye of the Heart” — book description, reviews, author bio, more
Eye of the Heart, The: A New Translation with Selected Letters
Eye of the Heart, The: A New Translation with Selected Letters
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Author(s): 
Subjects(s): 
Comparative Religion
Metaphysics
Symbolism
Tradition

Price:  $19.95

ISBN:  978-1-936597-70-3
Book Size:  6" x 9"
# of Pages:  248
Language:  English



Description of “The Eye of the Heart”
This new edition of The Eye of the Heart, one of perennialist author Frithjof Schuon’s earliest works, features a revised translation from the original French as well as over 50 pages of new material, including previously unpublished selections from the author’s letters and other private writings. Also featured is a foreword by Huston Smith, extensive editor’s notes, and a glossary of foreign terms and phrases.
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Details on “The Eye of the Heart”

This new edition of The Eye of the Heart, one of perennialist author Frithjof Schuon’s earliest works, features a fully revised translation from the French original as well as over 50 pages of new material, including previously unpublished selections from the author’s letters and other private writings. Also featured is a foreword by renowned religion scholar Huston Smith, an editor’s preface, extensive editor’s notes, a glossary of foreign terms and phrases, an index, and biographical notes.

Schuon’s perspective is that of the sophia perennis or “perennial wisdom”, which is capable of discerning the spiritual intentions behind religious doctrines, forms, and practices. The essays collected here cover a wide range of subjects, including the fundamental principles of spiritual symbolism, the enigmatic nature of evil, questions on the afterlife, and many invaluable insights concerning the integration of everyday activities into the spiritual life. Schuon also evokes the sacredness of creation and the message of beauty, which when seen with the “eye of the heart” leads back to God.


About the Author and Editor of “The Eye of the Heart”

Frithjof Schuon

Frithjof Schuon (1907-1998) is best known as the foremost spokesman of the “Traditionalist” or “Perennialist” school and as a philosopher in the metaphysical current of Shankara and Plato. He wrote more than two dozen books on metaphysical, spiritual, artistic, and ethnic themes and was a regular contributor to journals on comparative religion in both Europe and America. Schuon’s writings have been consistently featured and reviewed in a wide range of scholarly and philosophical publications around the world, respected by both scholars and spiritual authorities. Besides his prose writings, Schuon was also a prolific poet (see a listing of Schuon's poetry books) and a gifted painter of images that always portrayed the beauty and power of the divine, and the nobility and virtue of primordial humanity.

World Wisdom features a series titled "The Writings of Frithjof Schuon", which includes many new editions of classic books by Schuon in new translations and with additional materials. Our online Library contains many articles and poems written by Frithjof Schuon, allowing readers to see a representative sample of his remarkable body of work.

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Harry Oldmeadow

Harry Oldmeadow was co-ordinator of Philosophy and Religious Studies at La Trobe University in Australia and author of the acclaimed Traditionalism: Religion in the Light of the Perennial Philosophy (2000), an authoritative introduction to the perspective of Perennialism. Prof. Oldmeadow's contributions to World Wisdom books & DVDs includes:
Author/Editor of:   Contributed:
 

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Huston Smith

Huston Smith is one of the most prominent voices in the contemporary study of religion and spirituality. His book, The World's Religions, is used in countless classes, and Prof. Smith's other books are widely respected in the field. Much of his work over the years deals with the tenets of the Perennial Philosophy. Huston Smith's contributions to World Wisdom's books and DVDs include:
  • The "Foreword" in The Essential Sophia, also:
    • "What They Have That We Lack: A Tribute to the Native Americans Via Joseph Epes Brown", and
    • "The Master-Disciple Relationship"
  • The "Foreword" in Journeys East
  • The "Foreword" in The Eye of the Heart
  • "Hope, Yes; Progress, No" in Every Branch in Me
 

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Reviews of “The Eye of the Heart”

“I consider [Schuon] to be the most important religious thinker of our century.”
—Huston Smith, Syracuse University, author of The World’s Religions and Beyond the Post-Modern Mind



The Eye of the Heart is one of the author’s earliest books; the metaphysical wisdom which he so clearly articulates in this work remained the touchstone of his whole corpus.”
—Harry Oldmeadow, author of Frithjof Schuon and the Perennial Philosophy



“[In The Eye of the Heart] Schuon has elucidated some of the most complex metaphysical and cosmological questions as well as elements of the practical aspect of the realization of knowledge.”
—Seyyed Hossein Nasr, George Washington University, editor of The Essential Frithjof Schuon


The Table of Contents of “The Eye of the Heart”

Foreword by Huston Smith
Editor’s Preface by Harry Oldmeadow
Author’s Preface

Part I: Metaphysics and Cosmology

The Eye of the Heart
On Knowledge
An-Nūr
Nirvāna
The Posthumous States

Part II: Forms of the Spirit

Christianity and Buddhism
The Mystery of the Bodhisattva
Elementary Remarks on the Enigma of the Kōan
Īmān, Islām, Ihsān
Intellectuality and Civilization

Part III: Spiritual Life

Modes of Spiritual Realization
Microcosm and Symbol
Prayer and Integration of the Psychic Elements
Transgression and Purification
On Sacrifice
The Twin Pitfall
On Meditation

Appendix

Selections from Letters and Other Previously Unpublished Writings
Editor’s Notes
Glossary of Foreign Terms and Phrases
Index
Biographical Notes


Excerpts from The Eye of the Heart:
A New Translation with Selected Letters

The following excerpt is taken from the beginning of the first chapter of
The Eye of the Heart: Metaphysics, Cosmology, Spiritual Life
by Frithjof Schuon
(from the first section, Metaphysics and Cosmology)
:

The Eye of the Heart

       The eye, owing to its particularly adequate correspondence with the Intellect, lends itself as it were spontaneously to traditional symbolism, and it is to be found, although varying widely in degree of importance, in the symbolic language of all Revelations. The other organs of sensation—or more generally, the faculties of which they are the vehicles—give rise, it is true, to analogous applications, but with a less central bearing, so to speak: they correspond rather to distinct and therefore secondary functions of the intelligence, or else to fundamental modes of receptivity and cognitive assimilation, which means that they demonstrate less directly than the eye—or sight—the analogy between sensible and spiritual knowledge; among the faculties of sensation, only sight represents the Intellect conceived of as such and in its principle. This evident correspondence between sight and the Intellect is due to the static and total character of the former: sight realizes in simultaneous mode—as does space, which among the conditions of corporeal existence corresponds to it—by far the widest possibilities in the domain of sensible knowledge, whereas the other senses react only to influences linked to vital sensibility; hearing should be excepted, however, for it reflects intellection not in its static and simultaneous, but in its dynamic and successive mode, and which plays what could be termed a “lunar” role in relation to sight; that is why it is linked, not to space, but to time, the audible being situated, finally, in duration.(1) Be that as it may, the most important sensation—or let us say the one which is intellectually the most explicit—is undeniably light, whatever might be the importance of primordial sound, and of spiritual perfumes, tastes, and touches. Sight alone communicates to our perception the existence of immeasurably remote heavenly bodies that are perfectly foreign to our vital interests, and it could therefore be said that it alone is essentially objective.(2) Consequently, natural to compare light to knowledge and darkness to ignorance, and this is what explains the wide use made by the most diverse languages, and especially the sacred Scriptures, of the symbolism of light and sight on the one hand, and of darkness and blindness on the other.
       The symbolic transposition of the visual act onto the intellectual plane provides a quite expressive image of identification through knowledge: in this process one must indeed see what one is and be what one sees or knows; the object in both cases is God, with the difference however that He appears as “concrete” in the first case and as “abstract” in the second. But the symbolism of sight is universal and is therefore applicable also to the macrocosm and to all its degrees: the world is an indefinitely differentiated vision whose object in the final analysis is the divine Prototype of all that exists and, conversely, God is the Eye that sees the world and which, being active where the creature is passive, creates the world by His vision, this vision being act and not passivity;(3) thus the eye becomes the metaphysical center of the world of which it is at once the sun and the heart.(4) God sees(5) not only the outward, but also—or rather with greater reason—the inward, and it is this latter vision that is the more real one, or strictly speaking, the only real one, since it is the absolute or infinite vision of which God is at once the Subject and the Object, the Knower and the Known. The universe is merely vision or knowledge, in whatever mode it may be realized, and its entire reality is God: the worlds are fabrics of visions,(6) and the content of these indefinitely repeated visions is always the Divine, which is thus the first Knowledge and the ultimate Reality(7) — Knowledge and Reality being two complementary aspects of the same divine Cause.
       But let us now consider the function of the Eye of the Heart in the usual meaning of the expression, starting from the corporeal eye as the term of comparison: we would then say that the corporeal eye sees the relative, the so to speak broken aspect of God, whereas the Eye of the Heart(8) is identified with Him by the purity of its vision; the bodily eye is itself broken by its bipolarization that adapts it to perception, that is to say to the knowledge of the manifested as such; manifestation for its part proceeds from the principial bipolarization of Being into Word—or determining Essence, the domain of the Ideas in the Platonic sense—and into Materia Prima.(9) The Eye of the Heart, on the contrary, is unique and central, like the divine Face(10) which is its eternal vision, and which, being beyond all determination, is also beyond all duality. Thus the heart lies as if between two visions of God, one outward and indirect and the other inward and relatively direct,(11) and from this point of view the heart may be assigned a double role and a double meaning: firstly, it is the center of the individual as such and represents his fundamental limitation — his "hardness," as the Scriptures say — and thereby all his secondary limitations; secondly, it is the center of the individual insofar as he is mysteriously connected to his transcendent Principle: the heart is then identified with the Intellect,(12) with the Eye that sees God — and that consequently “is” God — and by which God sees man. In man, finally, it is only the heart that sees: outwardly, it sees the world through the mind and the senses, and inwardly, it sees the divine Reality in the Intellect; but strictly speaking, both visions—the outward as well as the inward— are but one, that of God. Between these two main visions there is an incompatibility in the sense that they cannot take place side by side in the same way and on the same level—notwithstanding the fact that the world can be seen in God and God in the world—firstly because the vision of the world is absorbed and annihilated by that of God, so that from this angle there cannot be a question of any reciprocity, and then because the created exists only due to its illusory particularization in relation to the Principle, so that its incompatibility with absolute Reality is implied by definition.


 
1.   In a certain sense, the sun makes space known and the moon time.

2.   Hearing is subjective—but not vital as are scent, taste, and touch—in the sense that it communicates things to us insofar as they concern us; sight communicates things to us only—and thereby all the more fully—insofar as they “are”, not insofar as they “speak” to us. The comparison between music—an exclusively auditory art— and painting—an exclusively visual art—is altogether significant in this respect. As for speech, it is addressed by definition to an auditor; for instance, if a written divine Name appears to us with the impersonality of a doctrine, the same Name, as soon as it is uttered and heard, has the function of a call; the distinction between the metaphysical and the initiatic perspectives—insofar as such a distinction is possible and relatively legitimate—clearly appears here and also explains the fundamental part played by incantation in methods of spirituality.

3.   Here, traditional symbolism will preferably involve Speech — the Word — owing to its immediate intelligibility.

4.   There are numerous and profound correspondences between the eye, the heart, and the sun, which often makes it possible to consider them as synonymous. The eye is the sun of the body, as the heart is the sun of the soul, and the sun is at once the eye and the heart of the sky.

5.   God as “Seer,” sees Himself as well as the world, including the minutest contingency — an “ant in the desert,” to quote an expression of the Prophet. This, by the way, excludes all pantheism as well as all deism.

6.   A world is thus a collective and yet homogeneous dream whose constitutive elements are obviously compossibilities. Subjectivists falsely inspired by Hindu doctrine readily forget that the world is in nowise the illusion of a single individual; in reality it is a collective illusion within another collective illusion, that of the whole cosmos.

7.   In Hindu doctrine, the pole “Knowledge” is designated by the term Chit and the pole “Reality” by the term Sat; in the human microcosm, one can distinguish the poles “intelligence” and “will” or at a more outward degree, “thought” and “action.”

8.   Before the Sufis, this same expression (Oculus Cordis) was used by Saint Augustine and others; it is connected with the well-known theory of this Father and the Doctors who followed him, according to which the human intellect is enlightened by divine Wisdom. The question of knowing whether or not there is a historical connection between the “Eye of the Heart” of Plotinian doctrine (ὁ μόνος ὀϕθαλμός), Augustinian doctrine, and Sufi doctrine (‘Ayn al-Qalb) is doubtless unsolvable and in any case unimportant from the standpoint at which we place ourselves; it suffices to know that this idea is fundamental and is encountered almost everywhere. Let us not forget to mention that Saint Paul, in the Epistle to the Ephesians, speaks of the “eyes of your heart” (illuminatos oculos cordis vestri, ut sciatis . . .) (1:18). On the other hand, it is hardly necessary to recall that according to the eighth beatitude of the Sermon on the Mount, it is they whose hearts are pure who shall see God.

9.  In Hindu doctrine: Purusha and Prakriti, the male and female Principles. Sometimes the latter is considered as active and the former as passive, because woman is active as mother; she produces children, whereas man, in the sole respect of enjoyment, is passive.

10.   The “Face of God” (Wajhu ’Llāh) in Sufi symbolism, represents the divine essence (Dhātu ’Llāh, the Quiddity or Aseity, ὕπαρξις in Greek theology), that is to say, Reality veiled firstly by the innumerable degrees of universal Manifestation, then by the “Spirit” (Ar-Rūh) which is its center as well as its “luminous Essence” (An-Nūr), and finally by Being itself; that is why the “Face of God” is also called the “absolutely Invisible” (Al-Ghayb al-mutlaq), or the “Invisible of invisibles” (Ghayb al-ghuyūb).

11.   There is a contradiction in terms here that cannot be avoided in such a case.

12.   In this respect, it should be recalled that according to Meister Eckhart’s expression, the Intellect is “uncreated”: Aliquid est in anima quod est increatum et increabile; si tota anima esset talis, esset increata et increabilis, et hoc est Intellectus. One should never lose sight of the distinction between the uncreated and the created Intellect, the latter being the vehicle of the former. In Hindu doctrine, the first is Chit and the second Buddhi, both being, in Christian theology, the Holy Spirit, which is always envisaged in its aspect of essential unity and not that of the degrees of universal affirmation; furthermore, the Holy Spirit, in accordance with the specifically religious point of view, which is sacramental, hence excluding the natural aspects of the supernatural, is hardly considered as “naturally” inhering in man. The texts that speak only of the uncreated Intellect always imply the other, which amounts to saying that they mention it implicitly; on the other hand, when it is said that the seat or place of actualization of the Intellect is the subtle or animic heart, it is always the created Intellect that is in question a priori and in an immediate fashion, even when, through essential synthesis and by omitting a link in the train of thought, one attributes to this Intellect the uncreated character of the divine Intelligence. Be that as it may, it goes without saying that the created Intellect is supra-rational like its unmanifested prototype.



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